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Date Snippet Page
2014/07/07 President Kiir launches renewed upgrade work on Juba airport, accusing former ministers of embezzling funds previously allocated for the purpose. The current work is to be carried out by the Chinese Harbour Engineering Company. Snippet: President Kiir launches renewed upgrade work on Juba airport, accusing....
2014/07/02 The Finance Minister tables an annual budget for South Sudan in parliament. The amount is reduced from SSP 17.3 billion in 2013-4 to SSP 11.3 billion. He reveals that South Sudan has debts of about SSP 10 billion. 74% of the budget is devoted to the salaries of government employees and the security sector. The minister complains at 'fiscal indiscipline', largely meaning corruption. Snippet: The Finance Minister tables an annual budget for South Sudan in parlia....
2014/06/03 The Ministry of Education says it does not know how many teachers there are, and is therefore planning a head-count. The exercise is to interview every individual teacher. Snippet: The Ministry of Education says it does not know how many teachers ther....
2014/05/22 Many prisoners are being released corruptly, according to a judge (he says 400 out of 600 in Aweil prison). He cites this as a reason to enforce the death penalty. Snippet: Many prisoners are being released corruptly, according to a judge (he ....
2014/05/13 Ghost workers on payrolls are still causing huge losses to corruption, says Interior Minister Aleu Ayieny. He claims to have recovered nearly SSP 2 billion by payroll reform through his ministry, but says the 2013/4 rebellion has left many more ghost workers again. A Salary Payment Committee failed to control the phenomenon, and has been dissolved. Snippet: Ghost workers on payrolls are still causing huge losses to corruption,....
2014/04/26 to 2014/04/28 President Kiir and other GRSS ministers attend the annual Tana High-Level Forum on Security in Africa, which this year focuses on illicit financial flows. There is opportunity to meet other African leaders. Among Kiir's meetings are ones with the leaders of Ethiopia and Sudan. Snippet 1879
2014/04/17 President Kiir orders the Ministers of Interior, Defense and National Security to remove illegal checkpoints on major roads, especially in order to facilitate humanitarian aid. Snippet
2014/04 Government in Bor is providing hard currency to selected traders, apparently in order to bring more imported goods to the area. Snippet
2014/03/23 to 2014/03/24 The Minister of Physical Infrastructure in NBGS is summoned to the state assembly to explain many apparent irregularities in the allocation of land around Aweil. But he fails to show up. Snippet 1677
2013/06/27 to 2013/06/28 Member of the NLA take part in a workshop 'to better understand how CDF funds have been used in the past, identify deficiencies in the current system from the legislation to the process of accounting for expenditures, and finally to make recommendations on how to improve the use of the CDF in the future'. This is organized by SUNY/CID and Deloitte with the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs and the Constituency Fund Committee of the NLA. Snippet
2014/03/04 The Interior Ministry and SSPS say they will investigate claims of wrongful taxation of relief goods on the Juba-Bor and Juba-Bentiu roads. Snippet
2014/03/01 The NBGS state finance minister is sacked by governor Paul Malong. Malong also sets up an investigation committee into reported embezzlement and mismanagement of state funds. Snippet
2014/02/26 CES anti-corruption commission says it identified a theft of SSP 230,000 from the state ministry of health, and has secured repayment of SSP 100,000 from the named individual, with a promise of the balance. Snippet
2014/02/20 Several NBGS state officials - including very senior ones - are arrested on suspicion of participating in the embezzlement of about SSP 10 million. Snippet
2014/02 Several top NBGS state officials are arrested, following the return to the state of governor Paul Malong. This is linked to Malong's rebuttal of allegations that he stole SSP 2m from state funds. Snippet
2013/10 The ministry of foreign affairs is trying to respond to concerns in the Legislative Assembly by slimming down the diplomatic service. It believes many diplomats have been appointed incorrectly. Many have been appointed on the strength of being important in the independence struggle, rather than diplomatic qualities. South Sudan currently has 22 embassies, but more than 90 ambassadors. Snippet 1333
2013/10 A screening finds that, out of 483 civil servants on the payroll of Lakes State, 74 were on medical leave, 134 on approved study leave, 29 had died in service, 79 had left the job. 124 names had been wrongly added to the payroll. The Lakes governor had stopped the salaries of those on medical leave, study leave, and secondment to NGOs, and now all salaries are suspended. Snippet
2013/09 to 2013/10 The governor of Warrap State, Nyandeng Malek Delic, sacks the state finance minister on grounds of corruption. Snippet
2013/08 The new national minister of the interior says that recent screening of police payrolls has identified 11,000 ghost names, accounting for USD 9 million a month in the salary bill. Snippet
2005 to 2013/10/01 The biggest anti-corruption investigation between 2005 and late 2013 is the (unconcluded) one into Deng Alor Kuol and Kosti Manibe Ngai over illegal request and transfer of about USD 8 million, although USD 4 billion has been said to have been stolen in total. The draft Anti-Corruption Bill has not yet been passed. Snippet
2013/09 After a visit to the states of greater Bahr el Ghazal, President Kiir directs the Anti-Corruption Commission to extend its activities to the 10 states. Snippet
2013/09 A local MP in Pigi County alleges that 13,000 sacks of dura, WFP food aid intended as food for work in Khorfulus and Atar Payams, was wrongly sold in the market by county officials. This seems to be related to the sacking of the RRC coordinator by the County Commissioner. Snippet 1219
2013/08 Unity State official explains the large number of ministers and advisors in the state on the demands for representation by each county and ethnic group Snippet
2013/08 Two county commissioners in Upper Nile State - for Baliet and Maban Counties - were sacked by the state governor on suspicion of misusing community funds. Snippet 1146
2013/08/08 A report in the name of the 'National Advocacy Group' (membership unknown) published in, alleges large-scale corruption under the former commerce minister, Garang Diing Akuang. It details the modality, which involves getting a permit from the ministry to buy USD at the official government rate in order to import something, but selling the dollars at a black-market price. A branch of the Qatar National Bank is accused of collusion. The NAG says it provided the report privately to the President and Anti-Corruption Commission in late 2012, but saw no action. Snippet 1129
2013/04/12 to 2013/05/07 President Kiir warns he will not tolerate government members publicly denouncing other members or the government in general as dirty while presenting themselves as clean. He appears to acknowledge that corruption and arbitrary arrest are common, but insist that government members publicly share a common level of responsibility. This follows the 12 April dismissal of Professor Elias Nyamlell Wakoson from the post of deputy foreign minister, after he had said the government was rotten to the core. Snippet 1071
2013/03/15 to 2013/08/01 On 15 and 23 March 2012, 'huge sums of money' are stolen from the Office of the President. After this fact is revealed by Sudan Tribune, President Kiir suspends three officials in the office and sets up a committee headed by SSACC Chairperson John Gatwec Lul. The report concludes the theft was done by a syndicate of office insiders, and notes a failure of office leaders to report the matter or tighten security afterwards. By 1st August it appears that at least two of the suspended officials have been reinstated. Snippet 1045
2013/07/25 The president of the Civil Society Alliance, Deng Athuai, welcomes the mass sacking of ministers, on grounds that they were largely corrupt, and asks for them to be replaced with new faces. Snippet 1028
2013/07/23 President Salva Kiir issues a decree sacking VP Riek Machar and dissolving the cabinet. He also orders a corruption investigation of SPLM Secretary-General Pagan Amum. These actions are widely seen as part of a power struggle at the top of government and the SPLM. Snippet 1021
2013/07/14 South Sudan News Agency publishes leaked documents which it says show that Deng Alor and Kosti Manibe - ministers suspended on suspicion of corruption in June 2013 - were not the culprits. The documents appear to refer to a purchase by GOSS of fireproof safes valued at nearly USD 8 million, through companies called DAFF Supplies International Ltd and Daffy Investments Group Ltd. Snippet 996
2013/02 GOSS spokesman says that tenders will be issued for oil concessions in sub-blocks in a transparent way. Snippet 981
2013/04/11 Cabinet instructs ministers of justice and finance to pursue and prosecute the suspected culprits in the dura scandal. Snippet 840
2013/02 A GOSS minister says South Sudan has recently 'finalised the sale of several oil concessions worth between $200 million and $300 million each'. One is rumoured to be with a Nigerian company. More such deals are hoped for in order to ease GOSS's finances. (Reuters, 14 Feb 2013) (But compare this with Snippet 981.) Snippet 679
2013/02/03 The South Sudan Electronic Payroll System II (SSEPS II) Pilot is launched by the Ministry of Labour, Public Service and Human Resource Development. It will be implemented from February to April and is expected to help identify and remove ghost workers from the payroll. (Justin Jada and Simon Owaka/GOSS-online, 3 Feb 2013) Snippet 678
2013/02 Governor of CES claims that senior SPLA officers sell the arms collected in disarmament campaigns and/or use them for re-arming their own communities. Snippet 661
2012 Around 2012 the army had 600 generals (who took a large amount of resources) (Alex de Waal, 2013) Snippet 606
2012 The oil shutdown of 2012 had less impact than it might because 'the majority of the South's oil income had never previously reached the people but had been siphoned off and ferreted abroad by members of the ruling elite' (Alex de Waal, 2013) Snippet 605
2012/08 Aug 2012: Maridi Commissioner Adel Sandarai is sacked by the state governor for selling trees at Embe Forest Reserve to foreign companies (Gurtong 15 Aug 2012) Snippet 595
2012/03 World Bank reportedly takes up the dura scandal corruption investigation, as some of the funds were supposedly part of the MDTF (Khisa, 2012a). Snippet 441
2008/02 Auditor-General sacked on suspicion of corruption February 2008 (World Bank 2010) Snippet 263
2007/04 GOSS's finance minister [Arthur Akuien Chol] was sacked on suspicion of corruption. Snippet 261
Reference Mini-review
Hilde F. Johnson, 2014/07/08. Bibliography item: Hilde F. Johnson (2014/07/08) "[Parting statement as SRSG to South Sudan]". (other). United Nations. [other] United Nations. Accessed online.

In a press statement on the last day of her term of office, the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General puts the blame for the current crisis and suffering in Sudan on the leaders of the SPLM party, whether currently rebels, dissidents or in government. 'The SPLM is at risk of failing' due to 'a scramble for power'. South Sudan is afflicted by three diseases: corruption, rule of gun (not law), and a self-serving elite.

Thon Awan, 2014/07/07. Bibliography item: Thon Awan (2014/07/07) "Corruption in the Office of the President!". (Article). Nyamilepedia. [Article] Nyamilepedia. Accessed online.

This short article contains an allegation of recent embezzlement of USD 12 million, which appears to be worthy of investigation.

Alex de Waal, 2014/07/01. Bibliography item: Alex de Waal (2014/07/01) "Is South Sudan “the World’s Most Failed State?”". (Article). World Peace Foundation, Tufts University. [Article] World Peace Foundation, Tufts University. Accessed online.

Short article which points out that the Fragile States Index, like the Busan 'New Deal' on aid to fragile states, take formal governmental institutions very much at face value 'without explicitly addressing the political-economic structures that sustain non-institutional modes of governance in the first place'. Suggests that systems of corruption and patronage in South Sudan have been fostered by incentives created by international actors in such sectors as oil, security and aid.

Agok Takpiny, 2014/06/28. Bibliography item: Agok Takpiny (2014/06/28) "How The Rampant Embezzlement Can Be Wrestled Mr President". (Article). Gurtong. [Article] Gurtong. Accessed online.

1,800-word article. Makes the point that South Sudan is distinguished not only in extreme corruption, but 'extreme lack of control and monitoring mechanisms' and a failure to prosecute any corrupt officials. It advocates passing a bill to create a formal procurement system and agency, and giving more resources and autonomy to law enforcement agencies, to stop the impunity of embezzlers.

Peter Adwok Nyaba, 2014/06/01. Bibliography item: Peter Adwok Nyaba (2014/06/01) "[Letter to Salva Kiir] Subject: Resignation from the SPLM". (Operating document). PaanLuel Wël. [Operating document] PaanLuel Wël. Accessed online.

Prominent politican and intellectual, Peter Adwok Nyaba, gives his reasons for resigning from the SPLM. It has abandoned its ideals and vision. He does not wish to be party to the 'horrendous crimes being committed against the people of South Sudan' during the current civil war. He does not wish to be party to 'the transformation of the SPLM into a totalitarian machine'. He also has personal grievances of being (he claims wrongly) smeared with the taint of corruption and rebellion and prevented from travelling abroad.

Global Witness, 2014/06. Bibliography item: Global Witness (2014/06) "South Sudan: The call for a moratorium on new oil contracts". (Report). Global Witness. [Report] Global Witness. Accessed online.

This attractively-presented 8-page document argues that GRSS should stop making any more big deals with companies in the petroleum sector until it has finished enacting and implementing the legislation that is meant to regulate them. GRSS has not yet met the requirements of the 2012 Petroleum Act. The Petroleum Revenue Management Bill has long been awaiting signature in the President's office. Until these are in place, deals signed are unlikely to be very favourable for the South Sudanese people.

Darren Bul, 2014/05/22. Bibliography item: Darren Bul (2014/05/22) "A Graduate of Jubocracy". (Article). PaanLuel Wël. [Article] PaanLuel Wël. Accessed online.

A nice little fable (probably true) about how young children get to see the government as intrinsically predatory.

Garang Atem Ayiik, 2014/05/20. Bibliography item: Garang Atem Ayiik (2014/05/20) "South Sudan Pound Appreciation, Risks and Policy Options". (Article). PaanLuel Wël. [Article] PaanLuel Wël. Accessed online.

This article sets out to understand why the SSP has strengthened against the USD in the black market since December 2013, and why bank are refusing or rationing withdrawals of USD from USD bank accounts. The author surmises that USD are leaking from the Central Bank into the black market without passing through the official market, and that too many SSP are being held in the banks. He recommends that the asset position of the Central Bank should be monitored, and that more SSP released into the economy (by prompt payment of salaries) to prevent a catastrophic reduction in economic activity.

Alex de Waal, 2014/03/27. Visualizing South Sudan: Rent-Seeking Rebellions [Article] World Peace Foundation, Tufts University. Accessed online.

This very brief article presents the sketched outline of a theory of politics and violence in South Sudan, based on the idea of 'rent-seeking rebellions' in which members of the political and military elite rebel largely in order to be eventually re-incorporated into the kleptocratic state on more favourable terms. It states that the dynamic is characteristically turbulent: 'inherently unpredictable or chaotic from one moment to the next, but maintain[ing] its overall structure over a period of time'.


Gabriel Garang Atem Ayiik, 2014/03/06. Examining the Exchange Rate Policy in RSS: Who was Right between Parliament and the Bank of South Sudan [Article] PaanLuel Wël. Accessed online.

Sophisticated but accessible analysis of exchange rate policy.



Constituencies Development Fund (CDF)

The CDF is a fund which by law disposes of three percent of national government revenues for constituency-level projects to promote development and poverty alleviation (ref). It has widely been criticized for lack of effective accountability, and being a probable site of corruption (ref, ref, ref, ref).

The fund was created under the Constituencies Development Fund Act, 2007. According to this, MPs are to submit project proposals for their own constituencies. Each MP's proposals should have been prioritized by a Constituency Development Committee convened by the MP. The proposals are scrutinized by both a management committee (formed mainly by ministries and their nominees) and a Constituency Fund Committee (formed of MPs). Approved proposals are passed to the Finance Minister for inclusion in the government budget. Projects are to be implemented by relevant ministries. (ref)

A website for increasing the transparency of projects, allocations and disbusement of the CDF has been set up at It appears to have been created in 2013. But as of March 2014 it is still under construction and does not contain much current information of special value.

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