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2014/07/11 The EU orders a freeze on any EU assets of generals Santino Deng (SPLA) and Peter Gadet (SPLA-IO) for violating the agreed ceasefire. Snippet: The EU orders a freeze on any EU assets of generals Santino Deng (SPLA....
2014/07/09 President Kiir warns that federalism would lead to expulsion of certain ethnic groups from certain states, such as Dinka from Equatoria. Referring to such a process in the early 1980s he calls this 'korkora'. Snippet: President Kiir warns that federalism would lead to expulsion of certai....
2014/07/03 The Governors of the Equatorian states insist that the debate on federalism should continue, despite apparent attempts by the central authorities to stifle it. Snippet: The Governors of the Equatorian states insist that the debate on feder....
2014/07/02 The Finance Minister tables an annual budget for South Sudan in parliament. The amount is reduced from SSP 17.3 billion in 2013-4 to SSP 11.3 billion. He reveals that South Sudan has debts of about SSP 10 billion. 74% of the budget is devoted to the salaries of government employees and the security sector. The minister complains at 'fiscal indiscipline', largely meaning corruption. Snippet: The Finance Minister tables an annual budget for South Sudan in parlia....
2014/06 Eden money transfer business has been hard hit by lack of business following widespread non-payment of government salaries during the recent civil conflict. Snippet: Eden money transfer business has been hard hit by lack of business fol....
2014/06 More than a thousand SPLA soldiers desert their posts in Jonglei apparently as a result of non-payment of wages for as much as much as six months. Snippet: More than a thousand SPLA soldiers desert their posts in Jonglei appar....
2014/06/10 An extraordinary summit of IGAD heads of state and government deplores continued flagrant breaches of the South Sudan cessation of hostilities agreements (26 Jan, 6 May, 9 May), and reaffirms the principle of inclusivity in peace talks (involvement of dissident SPLM leaders, other parties, civil society and faith groups). It threatens pressure and punishments against GRSS and SPLM-IO if they continue to violate agreements, hinder humanitarian aid, or obstruct the principle of inclusivity. Snippet: An extraordinary summit of IGAD heads of state and government deplores....
2014/06 In Aweil South County (NBGS) people are imprisoned for farming within the county capital, Malek-alel. The Commissioner says rules were agreed about this, but the Paramount Chief says the chiefs were not consulted. Snippet: In Aweil South County (NBGS) people are imprisoned for farming within ....
2014/06/03 The Ministry of Education says it does not know how many teachers there are, and is therefore planning a head-count. The exercise is to interview every individual teacher. Snippet: The Ministry of Education says it does not know how many teachers ther....
2014/06/01 Lam Akol (leader of parliamentary opposition party SPLM-DC) adds his voice to calls for a federal system of governance, and de-linking of the national army from the ruling SPLM party. Snippet: Lam Akol (leader of parliamentary opposition party SPLM-DC) adds his v....
2014/05/27 SPLA soldiers in Maban County have been divided into different camps, based on ethnicity. This is reportedly due to an order from the high command. Snippet: SPLA soldiers in Maban County have been divided into different camps, ....
2014/05/27 A new mosque is a subject of dispute in Wanyjok town, Aweil East County, NBGS. A group of local youth have campaigned for it not to be allowed in a central location, but the local government overrules them. Snippet: A new mosque is a subject of dispute in Wanyjok town, Aweil East Count....
2014/05/22 GRSS has set up a taskforce to help draft a media bill. It includes representatives of various kinds of civil society group. The Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, Mark Nyipuoc, says that the aim is to 'reform and reposition the media' to serve democracy and development through transparency and people-driven access to information. Snippet: GRSS has set up a taskforce to help draft a media bill. It includes re....
2014/05/13 A federal constitution is advocated by EES governor Clement Wani, claiming to speak on behalf of Greater Equatoria. Snippet: A federal constitution is advocated by EES governor Clement Wani, clai....
2014/05/12 The WBGS assembly raises taxes on alcohlic drinks from 30 to 50 percent. Snippet: The WBGS assembly raises taxes on alcohlic drinks from 30 to 50 percen....
2014/05/13 Ghost workers on payrolls are still causing huge losses to corruption, says Interior Minister Aleu Ayieny. He claims to have recovered nearly SSP 2 billion by payroll reform through his ministry, but says the 2013/4 rebellion has left many more ghost workers again. A Salary Payment Committee failed to control the phenomenon, and has been dissolved. Snippet: Ghost workers on payrolls are still causing huge losses to corruption,....
2014/05/06 The US Treasury Department imposes sanctions on generals Marial Chanuong and Peter Gatdet Yak. Marial is the commander of the presidential guards, seen as responsible for ethnic killings of Nuer people in Juba on 15-18th December. Gatdet is the former commander of the SPLA 8th Division, whose mutiny and attack on Bor on 18th December apparently involved ethnic killings of Dinka people, as did the rebel attack on Bentiu in April, which he is thought to have led. The sanctions freeze any US assets of the two generals and stop US companies and citizens doing business with them. Snippet: The US Treasury Department imposes sanctions on ge....
2014/04/30 Ann Itto, acting Secretary-General of the SPLM, apparently takes a position contrary to President Kiir, in welcoming possible US sanctions targeted against individual wrongdoers, and not seeing this as sanctions against South Sudan. Snippet: Ann Itto, acting Secretary-General of the SPLM, ap....
2014/04/30 The National Crisis Management Committee is blamed by the NBGS Education Minister for still blocking payment of teachers' February salaries, leading to stoppages of schooling in the state. Snippet
2014/04/28 James Hoth Mai, recently sacked as SPLA General Chief of Staff, says the great majority of SPLA soldiers are illiterate and have tribal loyalty to former commanders or warlords who recruited them, and this is a cause of the current crisis. He also says he does not feel bad about being removed from the post, as he was under pressure, blamed by both Dinka and Nuer for being against them. Snippet
2014/04/15 to 2014/04/18 In Nasir, SPLM-in-Opposition holds a consultative conference of its leaders with representatives of civil society. It endorses Riek Machar as the leader, and a set of eight specialized committees as an interim leadership structure. It resolves to pursue the adoption of federalism in the constitution of South Sudan, and to reform and professionalize the SPLA. Snippet
2014/04/22 The Secretary of the National Workers Union (NWU) says that: civil servants at state level should be paid similar wages to those at national levels; that state governments have been unhappy with the work of the NWU when it tries to follow up on employment rights; and that labour laws need to be reviewed. Snippet
2014/04 Following the rebel capture of Bentiu town in mid-April, some SPLM-in-Opposition commanders broadcast ethnic hate-speech, and call for vengeful sexual violence against women based on their ethnicity. (Others call for reconciliation.) Snippet 1840
2014/04 Riek Machar claims that adoption of federalism (stronger autonomy for the states) in the 2011 Interim Constitution would have helped avert the current crisis. Riek says he and the state governors had been advocating this system in 2011, but President Kiir had accused him of running a parallel government. Snippet
2014/04/13 A fire at the Beijing Hotel in Juba (apparently caused by electrical problems) is the fourth at that hotel, and follows recent fires at Sahara Hotel and South Sudan Hotel, as well as Green Garden restaurant Snippet
2014/04/11 Only 37% of health practitioners in Juba town have proper qualifications, according to a government press release. Snippet
2014/04/11 'Let us all thanks and applaud President Mayardit for that' reads part of a government press release on the establishment of a General Medical Council. Snippet
2014/04/09 January and February salaries have still not been paid to employees of Upper Nile State government, due to insecurity in the aftermath of the rebellion. Snippet
2014/04/02 A forum of political parties and civil society organizations is held in Rumbek, facilitated by UNMISS. Snippet 1757
2014/04 Only 25 out of 105 pharmacies in Rumbek Central County are found to meet qualifying standards, when checked by the state health ministry. Snippet 1756
2014/04/05 IGAD mediators set up an SPLM Intra-Party Dialogue Forum to run in addition to the main peace negotiations between GRSS and rebels. The Forum is facilitated with the help of the ruling parties of Ethiopia and South Africa. The AU welcomes it. Snippet
2014/04/03 US President Obama signs an order opening the way for freezing the US assets of South Sudanese individuals deemed responsible for human rights abuses, attacks on UN peacekeepers or obstructing the peace process. Snippet 1739
2014/04/01 Peace talks between GRSS and rebels have reportedly stalled, due to GRSS refusal to meet the demand of IGAD mediators to include the group of seven dissident SPLM leaders in the talks. The IGAD mediators are reportedly adjourning the talks until 30 April in order to consult with IGAD heads of state. Snippet
2014/04/01 Civil servants' salaries for February will be paid shortly, according to the chairman of national salary committee. They have been delayed due to the rebellion crisis. People absent from work will not be paid. Snippet
2014/03/28 The WBGS Education Ministry announces changes to the school system in 2015: secondary schooling will be four years rather than three, and Arabic will no longer be used as a medium of instruction. Snippet
2014/03 A private company - Yei Water, Sanitation and Public Utility Company - is expecting to expand the underground piped water system in Yei town. (But the process suffers from delays in government demarcation of roads.) Snippet 1704
2014/03/24 Soldiers wounded and disabled in recent fighting protest in Juba against non-payment of their January salaries. Snippet
2014/03/18 Many teachers in Aweil East County (NBGS) have not been working for several days, because they are waiting at the county centre for the salary committee to arrive, and fear they will miss their salaries if they return to their distant schools. Snippet
2014/03 Unpaid road workers employed by Africa Kongdai in NBGS are on strike over unpaid salaries. Some say they have not been paid for seven months. Snippet
2014/03 A process of re-planning Juba kicks of with brainstorming exercises. The process is being managed by the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Physical Infrastructure with support from UN-Habitat. Snippet 1643
2014/03/07 Rains start early in Juba, bringing extra squalour to the Tomping IDP camp. Snippet
2013/09 GRSS devalues the SSP and cut subsidies on fuel and cooking gas. There are popular protests. Snippet
2014/03/07 Four soldiers and four Ugandan brick-makers are killed by shooting in or near the army HQ barracks in Juba. Apparently a drunken soldier first killed three of a different ethnicity, then tried to shelter in a container where the Ugandans were hiding, which was fired on by pursuing soldiers. Snippet 1585
2014/03 School teaching quality is getting worse in NBGS, due to low salaries and unreliable allowances, according to the state education minister. Snippet
2013/12/06 Members of the (dissolved) SPLM Political Bureau hold a press conference and issue a statement in which they accuse Salva Kiir of discarding SPLM structures, ostracizing people formerly close to John Garang, bringing non-SPLM or recently-SPLM people into high government office. They call on him not to bypass the BP but to convene it to set the agenda for the NLC. Participants include: Riek Machar, Pagan Amum, Rebecca Nyandeng, Alfred Lado, Deng Alor, Chol Tong, Taban Deng, John Luk, Adwok Nyaba, Majak Agot, Oyai Deng, Madut Biar, Gier Chuang, Luka Monoja, Cirino Hiteng and Ezekiel Lol. Snippet 1568
2014/03 A local NGO - the Interchurch Medical Association (IMA) - is under contract from the Ministry of Health to coordinate and deliver services. Snippet 1561
2014/03 The Public Service Minister of WBGS believes a new database system will help avoid double employment and other salary-roll anomalies. Snippet
2014/03/01 A Yei municipality official says property 'left by Arabs' (particularly near the Municipality) will be taken over by the government, and that people living in such properties should move out 'without any quarrel'. Snippet 1504
2014/03/01 The Teachers Professional Union in CES complains about non-payment of allowances so far this year, especially in view of high living costs in Juba. Snippet
2014/02/25 Unity state says it will not pay salaries to employees who did not work during the month, even though this may have been due to insecurity related to the rebellion: for instance, teachers whose schools were closed, and others who fled to UN bases. Snippet
2014/02 Four Lakes state officials are suspended, apparently on orders from caretaker governor Dhuol, after allegedly organizing teachers' demonstrations against the state's stoppage of civil servant allowances. The governor says the allowances are only for the military, but others say they are due for all civil servants. Snippet
2013/10/16 Lecturers at Juba University, JGUST and UBEG call off their strike after the NLC allocates SSP 8 million in the final reading of the national budget. Their allowances are to be reinstated as from October. Snippet
2013/10/13 GOSS appeals for international aid to help people affected by floods. It has allocated SSP 7 million of its own money to this. More than 150,000 people are said to be in need of assistance. Snippet
2010/10/14 Having recently approved GOSS's largest ever budget, the National Legislative Assembly passes resolutions urging cuts to civil service positions at the national level, so as to fund greater capacity in the states, and mass retirements of elderly staff in order to make jobs for young graduates. Snippet
2013/09 The ministry of education, UNESCO and Save the Children do not seem to be monitoring progress in illiteracy eradication. Their joint press release for World Literacy Day (8th September) quotes a literacy rate of 27% as 'current'. This is a figure given in the South Sudan Yearbook 2010 (p.48) on the basis of a survey in 2009. Snippet
2013/10/08 The education minister says that the allowances of university lecturers (who are striking) cannot be reinstated until January 2014, because the government's oil revenues have not yet returned to pre-shut-down (January 2012) levels. Snippet
2013/10/08 The head of the SSWU (South Sudan Workers Union) calls on Juba University teaching staff to cancel their strike threat, following positive action by the government. Professors basic pay had been reduced from about USD 2,700 to USD 1,500, and pay of teaching assistants from USD 870 to USD 500. Their allowances are said to be in arrears of 14 months. President Kiir has ordered a reinstatement of allowances. Snippet
2013/10/07 Amid infighting over impeachment of the deputy speaker in the Northern Bahr el Ghazal assembly, one member of the assembly observes: 'We have not been allowed time and opportunity to do what the people who elected us wants to do, instead we have allowed ourselves to be divided by individuals'. Snippet
2013 The number of trained medical staff in Yambio hospital falls from 208 in 2009 to 158 in mid-2013. This decrease is attributed largely to lack of promotion opportunities, so that many leave to join NGOs or become self-employed. Staff policies come under the state government. The impact is felt especially in lower antenatal care service. Meanwhile about 60% of the hospital's work is helped by MSF Spain. Snippet 1318
2013/10 Chief (or Reth or king) of Shilluk people in South Sudan, Kwongo Dak Padiet, meets President Kiir and urges him to promote unity rather than political rivalries. Snippet
2013/10 A threatened strike by lecturers at Juba University is addressed by the education minister (John Gai Yoh) going to President Kiir, who directs the finance ministry to review the allowance policy. Snippet
2013/10/06 The Lakes State governor sets up an investigation committee into the recent disturbances and controversial arrests in Yirol West County, saying they should be seen as a personal case between the county commissioner, Colonel Majak Ruei, and MP David Deng Athorbei. Snippet
2013/10 A pioneering effort to extend HIV/AIDS counselling and testing from cities to rural areas is made by YMCA with support from the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, in Yambio area. Snippet 1297
2013/09 to 2013/10 Flooding in Gogrial West County is reported to have caused the deaths of at least 20 and caused extensive damage. Deaths are caused through disease, drowning, snake bites, crocodile bites and possibly masonry collapse. Snippet
2013/10 A screening finds that, out of 483 civil servants on the payroll of Lakes State, 74 were on medical leave, 134 on approved study leave, 29 had died in service, 79 had left the job. 124 names had been wrongly added to the payroll. The Lakes governor had stopped the salaries of those on medical leave, study leave, and secondment to NGOs, and now all salaries are suspended. Snippet
2013/10 More than 50,000 people have been displaced, and 11 reportedly died, due to flooding in Payinjiar County, Unity State. Snippet
2013/10 Delays in opening South Sudan's first two oil refineries - at Tharjiaf (Unity State) and Thiang Rial (Upper Nile State) - are blamed on non-arrival of equipment, due partly to poor road access. Snippet
2013/10/02 Eastern Equatoria State approves 22 new payams (districts), bringing its the total to 75. This is in response to 'community demand', presumably meaning the desire of ethnic groups to have more local self-government. Snippet 1270
2013/10/02 Fire destroys much of the South Sudan Hotel, apparently due to an electrical fault. (Note: the original source in the GOSS website is apparently incorrectly dated 2nd September rather than 2nd October) Snippet 1267
2013/09 Six people have been killed in fights in the Baka gold mine area of Talaa, Budi County, Eastern Equatoria, over an unspecified period. A county official blamed the fights on the effects of 'guu' and 'lira-lira' alcohol brewed in neighbouring districts of Uganda. The Baka gold mine area is said to be multi-ethnic, with many people from neighbouring countries, as well as criminals who flee there after committing crimes elsewhere in the county. Snippet
2013/08/08 The Madi head chief in Nimule is murdered. Other Madi leaders are arrested, but some Madi suspect the matter is related to Madi resistance to the idea of forming a town council for Nimule. This resistance is because they feel that it would provide a way of consolidating the occupation of land in the area by about 45,000 Dinka people, who have been there since the war, classified as IDPs. Snippet 1238
2013/09/27 to 2013/09/30 The Lakes State government apparently tries to stop a meeting being addressed by MP and former minister David Deng Athorbei. Deng returns to Juba, but there are then demonstrations and damage to the county commissioner's office, resulting in many arrests, of teachers and administrators as well as youth. Snippet 1234
2013/09 Daniel Awet Akot resigns as deputy speaker in the NLA following the appointment of Magok Rundial - his junior in the SPLM/A - as the speaker. Mark Nyipouch becomes deputy speaker instead, and Jasmine Samuel the deputy speaker representing women instead of Fatima Nyawang Biliu (who had to step down because she is from the same state as Magok Rundial). Snippet 1223
2013/09 Civil society groups hold a workshop on transparency and accountability in the management of public natural resources. They have a working group on accountability and transparency. Norwegian People's Aid is apparently involved in the workshop. The workshop appears to be a follow-up of the one of September 2012, looking at the Publish What You Pay (PWYP) worldwide coalition of coalitions. Snippet 1222
2013/05 to 2013/09 Killings and injuries by rogue members of security agencies in Wau, May - September. In May, one person was killed and two injured by a soldier attacking doctors in Wau Teaching Hospital. In July, one person was shot dead after a drunken policeman got into a quarrel. In late September 16 people are seriously injured - and some are critical in hospital - after a soldier detonates a grenade in a quarrel with a woman selling local drinks. Snippet 1221
2013/08/26 Some MPs believe that the national legislative assembly was intimidated by President Kiir into conducting business on Monday 26th August without a speaker, in contravention of procedural rules. They contend that Kiir is trying to manipulate the process of selection. Snippet
2013/08 Newly-appointed commissioner for Payinjiar County (Unity State) is the sixth since 2005. The county has a problem of 'rampant disunity'. Residents also complain the county is ill-represented in the state government. Snippet
2013/07/05 Germany and South Sudan sign an agreement under which the former will provide USD 40 million in aid over two years, focusing on ‘Decentralisation and Accountability’, ‘Urban Water and Sanitation’ as well as ‘Food Security and the Development of Agricultural Markets’. Snippet
2013/08 Acting Jonglei State governor, Hussein Maar, arranges with UNMISS (South Korean engineering unit) to help building dykes against flooding in Bor area. Snippet 1204
2013/08/23 Angry soldiers in Bor area, Jonglei state, have been blocking roads to protest against six month arrears of salaries. They have been resorting to borrowing from shops, and engaging in petty business (firewood). Snippet
2013/08/24 The WBGS finance minister explains to the state parliament that the July salaries of state employees have not yet been paid because the national Ministry of Finance sent the salaries without the 4% 'state portion revenue collections'. The state governor was currently in Juba trying to get a solution. This situation was said to be common to all the states. The national Ministry of Finance had already imposed a cut in the state budget of almost half. Snippet
2012/08 President Kiir on recommendation of NLA has recently ordered a review of salaries in the national security organs. Snippet
2013/01 The national finance ministry makes and agreement with state ministries on taxation, in which the states retain revenues from income tax on their own employees and agree to cooperate with the centralized collection policy. Snippet 1166
2013/06 In June, Lakes State Governor, Matur Chut Dhuol, bans alcohol in the state in an effort to reduce fighting. However it takes away an income source for many, while producers with good connections are said to be able to sell it for consumption in big hotels. Snippet
2013/08/01 to 2013/08/08 Heavy rain in Bentiu and other areas of Unity State in the first week of August leads to serious flooding. Snippet
2012 CNPC's 2012 global report on corporate social responsibility devotes one sentence specifically to South Sudan. 'We worked with the Embassy of China in South Sudan to build two basketball courts for Juba City, and funded two colleague students to study at Suzhou University and China University of Petroleum respectively.' Snippet 1115
2013/05 The dike to reduce flooding in Bor and Twic East Counties is being repaired by ASCOM, a Moldova-based oil company, which has a production-sharing agreement with South Sudan. Snippet
2013/07/27 President Kiir meets leaders of the 17 registered political parties, inviting them to nominate potential ministers for the new government. Snippet
2013/07/25 President Kiir is reported to have had difficulty appointing a new Vice-President. John Luk Jok, James Hoth Mai and Riek Gai Kok are reported to have turned down the job, while James Wani Igga was accused in consultative meetings of 'weakness and lack of seriousness as a leader'. Snippet 1032
2013/07/25 Joint statement by AU, IGAD and some Western states on the mass sacking of government ministers call for a new cabinet 'that reflects the diversity of the South Sudanese people'. Snippet 1027
2013/07/23 President Kiir's sacking of Vice-President Riek Machar is welcomed by the Governor of Jonglei, Kuol Manyang, on the grounds that Machar's lack of loyalty to Kiir was untenable. Manyang says Machar had said he had lost confidence in Kiir and had told Kiir that he planned to contest his position in the 2015 election. Manyang says that Machar is now 'free to form his own political party'. Snippet 1023
2013/07/23 President Salva Kiir issues a decree sacking VP Riek Machar and dissolving the cabinet. He also orders a corruption investigation of SPLM Secretary-General Pagan Amum. These actions are widely seen as part of a power struggle at the top of government and the SPLM. Snippet 1021
2013/04 Vice President Riek Machar identifies tribal-based urban settlements as a problem. Snippet 821
2013/02/18 A majority of state MPs in Unity State vote for a no-confidence motion against the state assembly speaker, Simon Maguek Gai. However, the state governor, Taban Deng Gai, does not back his removal, and discussions continue. Snippet 725
2011 OCHA, 2013, p. 4: "Heavy flooding across the country in 2012 affected over 313,000 people in 44 of South Sudan’s 79 counties. This was three times more than in 2011, where about 80,000 people in 16 counties were affected by seasonal floods." More than 70 per cent of the flood-displaced people in 2012 were in Jonglei State. Snippet 656
2011 'The 2011 transitional constitution dubbed English as “the official working language” but added that “all indigenous languages of South Sudan are national languages and shall be respected, developed and promoted.” With an estimated 64 tribes speaking different languages, the question remains how these will be promoted and developed.' (Abraham Daljang Maker/The Niles, 8 February 2013) Snippet 637
2012 to 2013 Payinjiar County is reportedly badly hit by floods in 2012 causing hunger and stress migration in 2013. (Bonifacio Taban/The Niles, 24 January 2013) Snippet 625
2013/02 'South Sudanese obtain most of their consumer goods and food from the north, and many families rely on northern migrant labor.' (Alex de Waal, 2013) Snippet 603
2012/07 2012 July: Waste collection system pilot is started with aid from JICA (Miraya 18 July 2012) Snippet 587
2012/07 2012: Community division means that Lopa/Lafon resists a single county commissioner. Instead in July the Governor appoints separate administrators for Lafon and Imehejek corridors (CRN 18 July 2012) Snippet 584

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Reference Mini-review
Daniel Akech Thiong, 2014/06/06. Bibliography item: Daniel Akech Thiong (2014/06/06) "Why SSP Gained Agains USD After Dec. 15, 2014". (Article). Gurtong. [Article] Gurtong. Accessed online.

Short article with interesting economic analysis. Plausibly argues that the main reason for the SSP's strength in the last six months is the non-payment of government salaries, particularly to soldiers who defected.

Jacob K. Lupai, 2014/06/02. Bibliography item: Jacob K. Lupai (2014/06/02) "Federal system of government in South Sudan not ‘kokora’". (Article). South Sudan News Agency. [Article] South Sudan News Agency. Accessed online.

This 1,500-word article addresses the perceived parallel between current calls for federalism, and the 'kokora' or sub-division of Southern Sudan which took place during under the ill-fated Regional Government between 1972 and 1983. An underlying issue is resentment - particularly by Equatorians - of apparent Dinka domination of central government. Kokora was seen as a way of mitigating that, but also causing disunity among Southern Sudanese. The author contends that federalism would be different from kokora, in not involving the eviction of peoples from provinces due to their ethnicity.

Augustino Ting Mayai, 2014/06/01. Bibliography item: Augustino Ting Mayai (2014/06/01) "How the Federal System of Government is Misunderstood in South Sudan". (Report). The Sudd Institute. [Report] The Sudd Institute. Accessed online.

This 4-page report points out that the current transitional constitution of South Sudan uses a kind of federalism, although without the name. Hence the current debate about adopting a federal system is often confused. In the view of the author, the debates should focus on more detailed questions like curtailing the power of the national president to dismiss state governors, and of the finance ministry to control all tax collection, and the central regulation of the judicial system. But he also points out the heavy immediate economic cost of decentralization.

Jack Lino Wuor Abeyi, 2014/06. Bibliography item: Jack Lino Wuor Abeyi (2014/06) "South Sudan: Federalism And Prisoner’s Dilemma". (Article). Gurtong. [Article] Gurtong. Accessed online., Accessed online., Accessed online.

Three-part article presenting a temperate and thoughtful collection of arguments against federalism in South Sudan.

John Adoor Deng, 2014/05/28. Bibliography item: John Adoor Deng (2014/05/28) "Rush to Federalism is not the Panacea to South Sudan’s Chronic Tribulations". (Article). PaanLuel Wël. [Article] PaanLuel Wël. Accessed online.

This 1,500-word article explains that federalism comes in a wide range of strengths, but generally opposes it for South Sudan at present on three grounds: (1) that South Sudan lacks enough common bond of unity to hold it together under a federal system; (2) the present lack of democracy does not provide a suitable basis for a federal system and (3) the present culture of corruption at the national level would be transmitted to the separate parts of the federation.

Garang Atem Ayiik, 2014/05/20. Bibliography item: Garang Atem Ayiik (2014/05/20) "South Sudan Pound Appreciation, Risks and Policy Options". (Article). PaanLuel Wël. [Article] PaanLuel Wël. Accessed online.

This article sets out to understand why the SSP has strengthened against the USD in the black market since December 2013, and why bank are refusing or rationing withdrawals of USD from USD bank accounts. The author surmises that USD are leaking from the Central Bank into the black market without passing through the official market, and that too many SSP are being held in the banks. He recommends that the asset position of the Central Bank should be monitored, and that more SSP released into the economy (by prompt payment of salaries) to prevent a catastrophic reduction in economic activity.

Zechariah Manyok Biar, 2014/05/18. Bibliography item: Zechariah Manyok Biar (2014/05/18) "How leaders contribute to tribalism in South Sudan". (Article). Sudan Tribune. [Article] Sudan Tribune. Accessed online.

This 1,000-word article contends that tribal conflicts are inflamed when political and military leaders surround themselves with bodyguards [and other staff] from their own tribe. In many South Sudan cultures, the author writes, the elders give orders to youth indirectly. For a leader in a modern state institution this has inappropriate political and legal consequences. The author recommends a legal ban on speech which belittles any ethnic group, or which suggests that one group is above the others. He also wants law to give a people freedom to live as a citizen in any state of South Sudan.

Daniel van Oudenaren, 2014/05/04. Bibliography item: Daniel van Oudenaren (2014/05/04) "Major language constraints on media reach in South Sudan". (Article). Radio Tamazuj. [Article] Radio Tamazuj. Accessed online.

The article explains why a large proportion of South Sudanese people lack effective access to national public information, and hence lack much voice in public affairs. The main factor discussed is the failure of radio media to broadcast in local languages. Blame is put on politicians who see media in terms of propaganda rather than factual reporting.

Jacob Akol, 2014/05. Bibliography item: Jacob Akol (2014/05) "The Need for an Ethnically Rooted Constitution for South Sudan as a Foundation for Democracy and National Stability". (Article). Gurtong. [Article] Gurtong. Accessed online.

This article (originally a conference paper) revives the idea of a 'House of Nationalities' - a permanent forum representing each of 60 or more defined ethnic groups in South Sudan - which had been developed between 2000 and 2004 (see here). The article suggests this should be a chamber under the constitution, possibly an upper house of parliament. The author links this to the radical recognition of sovereignty for all nationalities under the state which is professed in the Ethiopian constitution of 1994.

Eric Reeves and John Prendergast, 2014/04/19. Preventing Genocide in South Sudan [Article] South Sudan News Agency. Accessed online.

Ahead of the US State Secretary's visit to the peace talks in Addis Ababa, the international community is urged to help avert a greater catastrophe in South Sudan by: (1) increasing international forces in the country; (2) negotiating cross-line routes for humanitarian aid under a respected international figure; (3) ensuring punishment of indivuals who commit war crimes, through targeted sanctions (not only by the US but a coalition of countries), creation of hybrid courts, and referrals to the ICC; and (4) more support to the peace process and participation of opposition and civil society. 

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