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SPLM (Sudan Peoples' Liberation Movement)

Date Snippet Page
2014/07 Vice-president Wani visits China and receives pledges of USD 24 million aid, including USD 1.4 for the Kiir Mayardit Maternity Hospital. Various aid is promised to the SPLM party, including the training of cadres, the construction of a head office, and the publication of books. Snippet: Vice-president Wani visits China and receives pledges of USD 24 millio....
2012/07 to 2014/05/12 Six NBGS state MPs are expelled from the SPLM and hence lose their positions as MPs in July 2011. One of them blames it on the fact that they tried to impeach the state finance minister in 2011. In February 2013, President Kiir directs NBGS governor Paul Malong to reinstate the MPs, but he does not do so. After the transfer of Paul Malong to another post, Kiir again orders two of the MPs to be reinstated, which is done. (One of these MPs had apparently apologized, and the constituents of the other had apologized on his behalf. The other MPs say they do not know why they should apologize.) Snippet: Six NBGS state MPs are expelled from the SPLM and hence lose their pos....
2014/05 Registration of SPLM members is to be carried out in May, according to the party's Secretary-General. The registration partly aims to produce information on the skills and competencies of members by location. Snippet: Registration of SPLM members is to be carried out ....
2014/04/30 Ann Itto, acting Secretary-General of the SPLM, apparently takes a position contrary to President Kiir, in welcoming possible US sanctions targeted against individual wrongdoers, and not seeing this as sanctions against South Sudan. Snippet: Ann Itto, acting Secretary-General of the SPLM, ap....
2014/04/23 to 2014/04/26 A meeting is held between members of the SPLM Political Bureau, including four loyalists of Salva Kiir and four from the 'SPLM 7' former detainees. They are faciliated by the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) and African National Congress (ANC) of South Africa. Riek Machar and members of his negotiating team are invited to participate but decline saying that the problems 'have become a national issue'. Nevertheless the participants claim success in setting objectives, agenda and rules of engagement for a formal meeting of the Political Bureau. Snippet 1855
2014/04/07 IGAD mediators drop their demand that the 'SPLM 7' group be included in the main peace talks with GRSS and Riek Machar's rebels. Their inclusion had been a stumbling-block for GRSS participation. IGAD and the Government of Ethiopia sidestepped the problem by creating a separate process for extra internal dialogue in the SPLM. Snippet
2014/04/05 IGAD mediators set up an SPLM Intra-Party Dialogue Forum to run in addition to the main peace negotiations between GRSS and rebels. The Forum is facilitated with the help of the ruling parties of Ethiopia and South Africa. The AU welcomes it. Snippet
2014/03/26 GRSS should take affirmative action for people with disabilities, say senior SPLM officials Ann Itto and Acuil Malith Banggol. It should join the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Snippet
2014/03 SPLM members in Pariang County (Unity State) ask for high level party intervention to resolve their complaints against the SPLM county chairman (who is also the deputy governor of the state). Snippet
2014/03/13 Ann Itto, Acting SG of the SPLM, meets the Lakes acting governor and the SPLM state secretary, apparently to try to resolve conflicts between them and promote unity under President Kiir. Snippet
2014/03/07 Four soldiers and four Ugandan brick-makers are killed by shooting in or near the army HQ barracks in Juba. Apparently a drunken soldier first killed three of a different ethnicity, then tried to shelter in a container where the Ugandans were hiding, which was fired on by pursuing soldiers. Snippet 1585
2014/03/09 Yassir Arman, Secretary-General of SPLM-N, thinks that the current rebellion crisis in South Sudan should be resolved by SPLM cadres without external mediation. Snippet
2013/12/06 Members of the (dissolved) SPLM Political Bureau hold a press conference and issue a statement in which they accuse Salva Kiir of discarding SPLM structures, ostracizing people formerly close to John Garang, bringing non-SPLM or recently-SPLM people into high government office. They call on him not to bypass the BP but to convene it to set the agenda for the NLC. Participants include: Riek Machar, Pagan Amum, Rebecca Nyandeng, Alfred Lado, Deng Alor, Chol Tong, Taban Deng, John Luk, Adwok Nyaba, Majak Agot, Oyai Deng, Madut Biar, Gier Chuang, Luka Monoja, Cirino Hiteng and Ezekiel Lol. Snippet 1568
2014/03/05 Salva Kiir, as Chairman of the SPLM, appoints an eight-person committee to prepare an agenda for a meeting of the party's Political Bureau. He has been criticized for long postponement of any such meeting. The named preparatory committee includes four people aligned to the SPLM-in-Opposition rebels, including Taban Deng who has been charged with treason. The move thus spurs hope (but also doubt) of facilitating reconciliation and forward movement in the political process. Snippet
2014/03/04 SPLM officials in Lakes State boycott the swearing-in of the new state cabinet because they had not been informed of the reshuffle or been given a special invitation to the ceremony, which they consider their right. Snippet 1544
2014/03/05 Leading SPLM figure Luka Biong Deng calls for President Kiir to release the remaining four detained alleged coup plotters: Pagan Amum, Oyay Deng, Majak Agoot and Ezekiel Lul. Their trial in Juba is due to start soon, and Luka fears they do not have resources for adequate legal representation. He is encouraged by Kiir's naming of Riek ally Taban Deng in a preparatory committee for SPLM internal reconciliation talks. Snippet 1536
2014/02 GRSS's Crisis Management Committee, together with the SPLM Youth League, begin a national campaign preaching peace and reconciliation with a rally in Torit. Snippet
2014/01/21 Ann Itto, acting Secretary-General of the SPLM, says that the current crisis is not the fault of the party, but of leaders in it failing to live up to its values. Snippet
2014/02 SPLM Youth League chairman Paul Akol Kordit warns political parties against calling for an interim government. Snippet 1382
2013/10/29 The speaker of the Lakes state assembly is replaced, apparently largely through the agency of the SPLM chairman for the state, Daniel Awet Akot, changing a previous decision of SPLM members of the assembly. In the end, MPs are asked to choose among candidates from one particular county: Cueibet. Snippet
2013/10/08 A delegation from South Africa's ruling National Congress Party visits Juba for consultations with the SPLM. The GOSS website is used to report this. (Note: the report on the GOSS website was - apparently wrongly - dated 8th September rather than 8th October.) Snippet
2013/10/03 The SPLM caucus in Unity state admits journalists from government-run Bentiu FM 99, but not the aid-agency-run Miraya FM and Naath FM. Snippet
2013/05 to 2013/09 Killings and injuries by rogue members of security agencies in Wau, May - September. In May, one person was killed and two injured by a soldier attacking doctors in Wau Teaching Hospital. In July, one person was shot dead after a drunken policeman got into a quarrel. In late September 16 people are seriously injured - and some are critical in hospital - after a soldier detonates a grenade in a quarrel with a woman selling local drinks. Snippet 1221
2013/08 Purported intelligence reports on the internal personality and factional politics of the SPLM are reflecting and fuelling rumours and suspicion within the party. Snippet
2013/08/15 SPLM deputy secretary general, Ann Itto, announces on state TV that its chairman, Salva Kiir, has given the go-ahead for processes to review its basic documents before seeking registration as a political party under the laws of South Sudan. The process was stalled after a political bureau meeting on 5th March, where challenges to Kiir were announced. Under internal SPLM rules, the holding of its National Convention and re-election of chair should have taken place at the end of a five-year term in May. Snippet
2013/07 to 2013/08 An SPLM internal memo suggests an effort in the party to 'disown' some members of political bureau on grounds that they 'do not support the vision of the party'. Snippet
2013/07/25 As Chairman of the SPLM, and under SPLM internal law, Salva Kiir orders Pagan Amum not to leave Juba or talk to the media while under investigation for misconduct as SPLM Secretary General. Snippet 1029
2012/04 April 2012: The SPLM's National Liberation Council announces progressive policies (Gurtong 25 Apr 2012) Snippet 745
2012/09 Daniel Awet Akot, as SPLM chairperson for Lakes State (he is also Deputy Speaker of the SSLA), appoints Mabor Ater Dhuol as Secretary for the SPLM in Lakes: a move which is seen as unconstitutional by some other Lakes SPLM officials, who say it did not involve consultation (Sudan Tribune, 5 February 2013) Snippet 610
Reference Mini-review
Hilde F. Johnson, 2014/07/08. Bibliography item: Hilde F. Johnson (2014/07/08) "[Parting statement as SRSG to South Sudan]". (other). United Nations. [other] United Nations. Accessed online.

In a press statement on the last day of her term of office, the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General puts the blame for the current crisis and suffering in Sudan on the leaders of the SPLM party, whether currently rebels, dissidents or in government. 'The SPLM is at risk of failing' due to 'a scramble for power'. South Sudan is afflicted by three diseases: corruption, rule of gun (not law), and a self-serving elite.

Peter Adwok Nyaba, 2014/06/01. Bibliography item: Peter Adwok Nyaba (2014/06/01) "[Letter to Salva Kiir] Subject: Resignation from the SPLM". (Operating document). PaanLuel Wël. [Operating document] PaanLuel Wël. Accessed online.

Prominent politican and intellectual, Peter Adwok Nyaba, gives his reasons for resigning from the SPLM. It has abandoned its ideals and vision. He does not wish to be party to the 'horrendous crimes being committed against the people of South Sudan' during the current civil war. He does not wish to be party to 'the transformation of the SPLM into a totalitarian machine'. He also has personal grievances of being (he claims wrongly) smeared with the taint of corruption and rebellion and prevented from travelling abroad.

Daniel van Oudenaren, 2014/03/05. Political dimensions of the South Sudan crisis [Article] Radio Tamazuj. Accessed online.

Argues that the roots of the current crisis lie in the structures and culture of the SPLM, deriving from its tutelage by the Mengistu/Derg regime in Ethiopia before 1991. The constitutional structure of the SPLM echoes that of the ruling party in the Derg (and Soviet Union) regimes. It's practical effect is to create vacuums of authority which the top leader tries to fill. This has specially been the case since the failure to hold a new National Liberation Council meeting before the authority of the previous one expired. The US and other Western powers over-estimated their own influence.

Mahmood Mamdani, 2014/02/15. South Sudan and its unending bloody conflict: No power-sharing without political reform [Article] The East African.

This 5,000-word article is particularly interesting in view of its author's status as a public intellectual and a member of the AU Commission of Enquiry. Mamdani argues that the rebellion crisis has roots in colonial techniques for managing populations as tribes, which still shape politico-social relationships. It blames a failure to build institutional culture in the SPLM/A and a 'shoddy' 2005 peace agreement largely on the influence of the US's War on Terror. It sees a way forward in combining political reforms with power-sharing, rather than punishing the perpetrators of gross violence.

GRSS, 2014/02/06. The Truth about the Aborted Coup of Dr. Riek Machar and his group of the 15th December, 2013; documented by the Government of the Republic of South Sudan [Report] Government of the Republic of South Sudan. Accessed online.

17-page GRSS account of the events and circumstances surrounding what it characterizes as the 'aborted coup' by Riek Machar. Includes some details of the aftermath up to early February 2014, including military developments, the prosecution of suspected coup plotters, and the policies and strategies of the government to reach peace.

Arop Madut Arop Gotnyial, 2014. Background to the ongoing crisis in South Sudan [Article] Sudan Tribune. Accessed online., Accessed online.

A long article (divided into four parts) containing beliefs and analysis of an MP. Among topics covered are: the current need for Ugandan forces in South Sudan; lack of control over oil money; failings of international aid; deplorably ad-hoc origins of the civil service; and lack of cultural integration of population groups with different experiences during the war. The author thinks the SPLM Politburo should have been more active in the governance process, but wasn't because many of its members were made ministers, and were then alienated when President Kiir sacked them in mid-2013.


NSS-GIB, 2013. Current political situation and its containment strategy [Operating document] National Security Service - General Intelligence Bureau. Accessed online.

This is apparently a leaked top-secret document which, if genuine, provides insights into the political events of later 2013. It is a funding proposal by the NSS-GIB to enhance their capacity to know about the potentially destabilizing activities of some politicians and their supporters in the run-up to the SPLM's Third National Convention. Also for organizing support campaigns in South Sudan and internationally. It includes a budget for USD 7m. It lists various political figures as suspected of running 'underground political campaigns' (see topic tags and the original document for names).

Mairi John Blackings, 2012/06/23. South Sudan one year on: from the world’s newest state to another African story [Academic paper] Presented at Sudanese Programme, St Antony's College, Oxford.. Accessed online.

Argues that South Sudan's post-independence problems stem largely from the conflation of the SPLM/A with the state. Unpacks this argument through analysis of some public symbols and incidents, using concepts of 'sub-nationalism', and '"we liberated you"' doctrine.

Nicola Loise de Jager, 2009/07. Bibliography item: Nicola Loise de Jager (2009/07) "Voice and accountability in one party dominant systems: A comparative case study of Mexico and South Africa". (Thesis). University of Pretoria. [Thesis] University of Pretoria. Accessed online.

Argues that dominant parties ruling in a state tend to be caught up in a dynamic of centralization. They can adopt strategies such as patronage, cadre deployment, the establishment of economic and ideological monopolies, which lead to increased authoritarianism. Opposition parties and civil society can partly resist this dynamic by representing citzen interests, mobilizing the public in political participation, maintaining pressure on the government for public accountability.

Raymond Suttner, 2006/12. Bibliography item: Raymond Suttner (2006/12) "Party Dominance ‘Theory’: Of What Value?". (Article). Politikon. [Article] Politikon. Accessed online.

This academic article argues that the dominance of a single party in a state (such as the ANC in South Africa or the SPLM in South Sudan) does not necessarily indicate or cause a lack of democracy. Power relationships and struggles can exist in a variety of locations and ways - not just along party lines - and we need to recognize 'the right and necessity' for people's engagement in these locations, and 'unpack the modes of working that will need our understanding'.


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