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The states and deeper

Date Snippet Page
2014/07/15 Fees on Sudanese transhumant animals in Upper Nile State are being reduced. The fees are reportedly levied by a non-governmental Pastoralists Union in the state, and the high level has apparently discouraged migration or payment by herders from Sennar, White Nile and Blue Nile States. Snippet: Fees on Sudanese transhumant animals in Upper Nile State are being red....
2014/07/14 Tonj civil hospital has run out of injectable drugs, while Tonj town is virtually cut off by rains on poor roads. The problem of drug supply seems to be more general, in Warrap state at least. Snippet: Tonj civil hospital has run out of injectable drugs, while Tonj town i....
2014/07/04 Jonglei state has cancelled its agreement with OCHA, the UN's humanitarian coordination agency, over dispute about relative quantities of food distributed in government- and rebel-held areas, says the state's information minister. Snippet: Jonglei state has cancelled its agreement with OCHA, the UN's hum....
2014/07/03 The Governors of the Equatorian states insist that the debate on federalism should continue, despite apparent attempts by the central authorities to stifle it. Snippet: The Governors of the Equatorian states insist that the debate on feder....
2014/07/04 Equatorians in the army and police are being disarmed, says the governor of CES. Snippet: Equatorians in the army and police are being disarmed, says the govern....
2014/06 More than a thousand SPLA soldiers desert their posts in Jonglei apparently as a result of non-payment of wages for as much as much as six months. Snippet: More than a thousand SPLA soldiers desert their posts in Jonglei appar....
2014/06 The rate of HIV among people tested in Morobo County and Yei River County health facilties has risen sharply. Snippet: The rate of HIV among people tested in Morobo County and Yei River Cou....
2014/06/05 The caretaker governor of Lakes orders chiefs and county commissioners to recruit 800 youth per county into the SPLA, and recruit them by force if necessary. Snippet: The caretaker governor of Lakes orders chiefs and county commissioners....
2014/06/03 to 2014/06/04 Thousands of IDPs at Melijo (20km from Nimule, Magwi County) are reported in dire need of medical care and other assistance. The EES health minister says there is no IDP camp, but as citizens the people can access facilities in Mogali Payam and Nimule Town. (The IDPs from Jonglei were previously offered relocation to a different part of EES but refused.) However, UNHCR and Health Link South Sudan go ahead with a needs assessment and registration. Snippet: Thousands of IDPs at Melijo (20km from Nimule, Magwi County) are repor....
2014/06 Shortage of judges in WES results in long detention for many suspects before they can be tried. The shortage is partly because many judges took leave when the national rebellion started in December 2013 and have not yet returned. Snippet: Shortage of judges in WES results in long detention for many suspects ....
2014/06 In Aweil South County (NBGS) people are imprisoned for farming within the county capital, Malek-alel. The Commissioner says rules were agreed about this, but the Paramount Chief says the chiefs were not consulted. Snippet: In Aweil South County (NBGS) people are imprisoned for farming within ....
2014/05 Representatives of Anyuak and Jie communities say they do not want to be part of the Greater Pibor Administrative Area, which was negotiated by GRSS with the SSDM/A Cobra faction (David Yau Yau militia). Snippet: Representatives of Anyuak and Jie communities say they do not want to ....
2014/06/02 Systematic extortion from traders to Warawar market (near the border with Sudan in NBGS) is being done by a gang (possibly associated with an Arab ethnic group). Snippet: Systematic extortion from traders to Warawar market (near the border w....
2014/05/26 to 2014/05/28 A peace conference is held for Lakes state traditional leaders and county commissioners trying to stem inter-communal violence. But some chiefs boycott it and it breaks up early. Police complain that the public is trying to isolate the government by not co-operating in criminal investigations. It appears that participants agreed on an idea put forward by the acting Lakes governor, of internal borders supervised by tribal courts. But some observers consider this impractical and likely to engender more conflict. Snippet: A peace conference is held for Lakes state traditional leaders and cou....
2014/05/30 to 2014/05/31 Representatives of Misseriya and Dinka Malual peoples meet to discuss and regulate their cross-border relationship, at Wanyjok in NBGS. There are relatively few points of conflict this year, and they agree to encourage inter-marriages through inter-cultural dances. Snippet: Representatives of Misseriya and Dinka Malual peoples meet to discuss ....
2014/05/30 Unity State’s caretaker governor changes all his state ministers and three county commissioners. Snippet: Unity State’s caretaker governor changes all his state ministers and....
2014/05/31 Work is going ahead in WES on USAID’s Feeder and Trunk Roads Program, implemented by Tetra Tech. Snippet: Work is going ahead in WES on USAID’s Feeder and Trunk Roads Program....
2014/05/30 General Dau Aturjong defects to SPLM-IO. Dau is an influential figure in NBGS, where he lost a controversial gubernatorial election to Paul Malong Awan in 2010. Snippet: General Dau Aturjong defects to SPLM-IO. Dau is an influential figure ....
2014/05/27 SPLA soldiers in Maban County have been divided into different camps, based on ethnicity. This is reportedly due to an order from the high command. Snippet: SPLA soldiers in Maban County have been divided into different camps, ....
2014/05/23 156 people are reported dead in clashes between youth from Rumbek North and Cueibet Counties, Lakes State, according to police. The dead are mainly from Waat and Panyar sections. Many died in an ambush when returning home with raided cattle. Communities do not co-operate much with police investigations. A peace conference had started by 27 May. Snippet: 156 people are reported dead in clashes between youth from Rumbek Nort....
2014/05/27 A new mosque is a subject of dispute in Wanyjok town, Aweil East County, NBGS. A group of local youth have campaigned for it not to be allowed in a central location, but the local government overrules them. Snippet: A new mosque is a subject of dispute in Wanyjok town, Aweil East Count....
2014/05 A Council of Traditional Authority Leaders is to be set up in NBGS. Snippet: A Council of Traditional Authority Leaders is to be set up in NBGS.....
2014/05 Constituency Development Fund projects in Yei River County are evaluated by a team from the NLC. Initial reports suggest that some of the projects have been productive, but others misconceived and/or mismanaged. Snippet: Constituency Development Fund projects in Yei River County are evaluat....
2014/03 to 2014/05 Refugees in Maban County (Upper Nile) camps receive only 37 days worth of rations within a 90 day period. At least 2,000 of the 126,000 are forced to return to Sudan because of food shortages. The World Food Programme has the role of delivering the food. With the road from Gambella (Ethiopia) almost unusable in the rainy season, it has organized some airlifts and airdrops, but is also pursuing the cheaper alternative of barge transportation. Snippet: Refugees in Maban County (Upper Nile) camps receive only 37 days worth....
2014/05/20 David Yau Yau, leader of the former SSDM/A Cobra faction rebels, returns to Juba saying that this marks the end of his faction's conflict with the government and that Greater Pibor Administrative Area is already in effect. Snippet: David Yau Yau, leader of the former SSDM/A Cobra faction rebels, retur....
2012/07 to 2014/05/12 Six NBGS state MPs are expelled from the SPLM and hence lose their positions as MPs in July 2011. One of them blames it on the fact that they tried to impeach the state finance minister in 2011. In February 2013, President Kiir directs NBGS governor Paul Malong to reinstate the MPs, but he does not do so. After the transfer of Paul Malong to another post, Kiir again orders two of the MPs to be reinstated, which is done. (One of these MPs had apparently apologized, and the constituents of the other had apologized on his behalf. The other MPs say they do not know why they should apologize.) Snippet: Six NBGS state MPs are expelled from the SPLM and hence lose their pos....
2014/05/14 A supervision committee for the Constituency Development Fund (CDF) in CES says the scheme is showing tangible results. Snippet: A supervision committee for the Constituency Development Fund (CDF) in....
2014/05 Public cattle vaccination in NBGS is extended to cattle of nomadic Sudanese pastoralists (Rizeigat, Misseriya) as well as local herders. Snippet: Public cattle vaccination in NBGS is extended to cattle of nomadic Sud....
2014/05/12 The WBGS assembly raises taxes on alcohlic drinks from 30 to 50 percent. Snippet: The WBGS assembly raises taxes on alcohlic drinks from 30 to 50 percen....
2014/05/12 The measured malnutrition rate in Doro refugee camp (Maban County) has passed the 'emergency' threshhold. The effect of rain on the roads means that air transportation of supplies will probably be needed. Snippet: The measured malnutrition rate in Doro refugee camp (Maban County) has....
2014/05 The rate of female genital mutilation is high and increasing in Raga and Wau counties, according to the WBGS health minister. He calls on aid agencies to help solve the problem. Snippet: The rate of female genital mutilation is high and ....
2014/05 One borehole is available for 19,000 people in part of Terekeka County, meaning that many people take drinking-water from roadside pits. The county commissioner says government funds are lacking and appeals to aid agencies to solve the problem. Snippet: One borehole is available for 19,000 people in par....
2014/05/09 A peace agreement is signed between David Yauyau`s SSLM/A-C group and GRSS in Addis Ababa. It was mediated by church leaders under Bishop Paride Taban. It is unclear whether the terms vary from those initialled on 28th March, which involve the creation and funding of a Greater Pibor Administrative Area. Snippet: A peace agreement is signed between David Yauyau`s SSLM/A-C group and ....
2014/05/07 Food rations in refugee camps in Maban County (Upper Nile) are inadequate. UNHCR and WFP blames the fighting between GRSS and rebels for insecurity which hinders the transportation of supplies. Snippet: Food rations in refugee camps in Maban County (Upp....
2014/05 A women‘s coalition inspects EES state prison in Torit and finds alarming sanitary and welfare conditions, which a prison officer attributes to inadequate state funding. Snippet: A women‘s coalition inspects EES state prison in....
2014/05 Yei police arrest three men dressed in women’s clothing, which the Yei Police Chief Commissioner says is a crime. The men are later tried in the customary court and released for lack of clear evidence against them. The court warns girls against dressing in tight clothing which may incite crime. Snippet: Yei police arrest three men dressed in women’s clothing, which the Y....
2014/05 The road linking Kuacjok (the Warrap State capital) to Tonj South County, Lakes and NBGS is likely to become impassible during the rainy season unless there is special help from the national government, says the Tonj South Commissioner. The 'social taxes' of SSP 30 per household raised at local level are inadequate to maintain the road. Snippet: The road linking Kuacjok (the Warrap State capital....
2014/04/29 Eastern Equatoria State warns Jonglei State to stay out of Kasengor Payam, which it says is part of Kapoeta East County, not Pibor County. It comes after a letter emerges written by Defence Minister Kuol Manyang (formerly governor of Jonglei) directing the release of two vehicles to the "Jie community in Kasengor payam [district] of Pibor county". An MP of Pibor South calls the EES claim a lie. The emergence of the issue seems to be related to demands made by David Yau Yau's rebel group in peace negotiations with GRSS. Snippet: Eastern Equatoria State warns Jonglei State to sta....
2014/04/17 MPs of and other policians of Ananatak area in Tonj East County are criticized for failing to make peace initiatives in the inter-communal conflicts between Kongor and Thiik, and Luanykoth and Akok Tek. Prominent politicians include Awut Deng Acuil and Wek Mamer. Snippet 1875
2014/04/26 to 2014/04/27 A large defection of SPLA soldiers in Wau leads to fighting, and also to panic especially among Nuer citizens. The state government seeks to avert ethnic violence by mounting joint patrols. But about 700 flee to the UNMISS camp. One of the defecting generals explains that the action came because Nuer soldiers felt under threat from their Dinka colleagues especially after the recent defections and fighting in Mapel. Snippet 1874
2014/04/27 Dinka youth in the northern part of Upper Nile State have reportedly been mobilized on behalf of GRSS to help defend the Paloich oilfields. Snippet
2014/04/24 to 2014/04/25 Tensions within SPLA forces in Mapel (WBGS) reportedly lead to heavy fighting and defection of about 150 soldiers. Snippet
2014/04/25 SPLM-in-Opposition claims its forces killed 69 JEM fighters and captured 14 landcruisers in JEM colours in Unity State. JEM denies it had any forces there. Snippet
2014/04/23 A concerted multiple immunization campaign begins in seven states, aiming to provide two million under-5 children with vaccines against measles and polio, and providing vitamin A supplements. Snippet 1864
2014/04/23 Leer and Mayom Counties of Unity State have fallen under the control of rebels, admits Information Minister Michael Makuei. He blames traitors within the SPLA, and asserts that the key towns will be recaptured within 24 hours. Snippet
2014/04/21 UNMISS in Unity State (which now shelters 22,000 in its protection site) urgently needs reinforcements, but the Ghanaian battalion assigned there still has not arrived. Snippet
2014/04/19 Over 100 people were killed in a cattle raid in a remote area of Warrap State, according to a local information minister. 85 of the dead were alleged attackers being pursued by police and soldiers. Snippet
2014/04 A top police officer of Wau is shot dead in Tombura after allegedly defecting to Riek Machar's rebel movement and attempting to smuggle arms. Snippet
2014/04/17 The first batch of 116 students graduates from [the latest incarnation of] Lainya vocational training institute, in a project run by PLAN International, funded by the EU. Snippet 1830
2014/04 Chi'ang Wei company is starting industrial pig farming, based at Luri [?Lainya County] in CES. Snippet
2014/04/18 to 2014/04/20 Reactions to the recent attack on the Bor UN compound by local youth: *Jonglei governor John Kong Nyuon deplores it and vows that the state government will investigate and take measures against the perpetrators. *National information minister Michael Makuei, claims the attack was provoked when UNMISS forces fired warning shots. *President Kiir calls it an ‘irresponsible act by irresponsible people’. *UN Security Council expresses outrage and warns that such attacks against civilians and peacekeepers 'may constitute a war crime'. Snippet 1827
2014/04/17 At least 58 people are killed when local youth invade the UN compound and begin shooting at people sheltered there. UN peacekeepers fight back. There are reports that the attack was triggered when camp residents celebrated the fall of Bentiu to rebel forces. Snippet 1824
2014/04/16 The Governor of CES orders a stop to cutting of teak until further notice, citing 'massive deforestation without replacement'. This follows recent protests about lack of community benefit in Kagelu areas. Snippet
2013 to 2014 Egypt has provided a well-equipped health clinic in Akon Payam (Gogrial West County, Warrap State), and doctors to staff it (although the staff left during the insecurity in late 2013 and early 2014). Snippet
2014/04/11 to 2014/04/12 About 40 people are killed in inter-communal clashes in Rumbek East County (Lakes State): between Durbaar and Durceek clans and between Panyar and Nyuei clans. Snippet
2014/04/09 County councilors take office in Warrap State. Snippet 1801
2014/04/10 Timber companies operating in Kagelu National Forest agree to help build a new primary school in the area. This comes in a meeting at the headquarters of Yei River County chaired by the county commissioner after complaints from the local people that they were not gaining enough benefit from the government-licensed activities. The commissioner also suspends teak logging in the area until further measures are in place to ensure community benefits. Snippet 1797
2014/04/08 A peace conference between Rup and Kuei (Dinka) sections in Rumbek Central is set back after two MPs start fighting. Snippet
2013 At least five chiefs are dismissed during 2013 by the acting governor of Lakes State, Matur Chut Dhuol. The main reason is failure to arrest suspects in inter-communal killings. But the chiefs say this is the job of police. Snippet
2014/04 The South Sudan Agriculture Bank (a new government-owned institution) is reportedly ready to make loans to farmers in WBGS and has given six tractors in the State, to be paid for in installments. Snippet
2014/04 IGAD ceasefire monitors begin work in Bor on 1st April and Bentiu on 5th April. They are expected to start in Malakal on 15th April. Snippet
2014/04/09 January and February salaries have still not been paid to employees of Upper Nile State government, due to insecurity in the aftermath of the rebellion. Snippet
2014/04 Most school students are late for the beginning of the school year, according to the Education Director of Tonj South County (Warrap State). This may be because they are following the pattern previously established in Sudan. Or it may be because they have not returned from seasonal fishing and cattle-herding in remote wetlands. Snippet
2014/04/11 Jonglei State Governor acknowledges that looters in Bor town during the recent crises included civilians and GRSS forces. He asks police to arrest suspects. Snippet
2014/04 Lakes state bans logging and lumbering (rather than issuing licenses for it as previously). The state also requires charcoal and bamboo dealers to obtain permits. Snippet
2014/04/08 The speaker of the Jonglei State assembly resigns to allow re-establishment of the traditional balance in the high offices of the state between Greater Bor, Greater Fangak, Greater Akobo and Greater Pibor areas. Snippet
2014/04 There is no secondary school in Pochalla County. The main option for students seeking secondary education is to go to Ethiopia. Snippet
2014/04 Wau still does not have a proper power station, since 2011 when the old one collapsed. Costs of town electricity are very high. Snippet
2014/04 People stone to death an old man for allegedly poisoning a chief, in the second act of deadly mob justice in Mugwo Payam (Yei River County, CES) this year. Snippet 1764
2014/04 Government in Bor is providing hard currency to selected traders, apparently in order to bring more imported goods to the area. Snippet
2014/04/07 The Sudan air force reportedly bombs unknown targets in Pariang County. Snippet
2014/04/01 to 2014/04/02 Six women and two children are killed in Ngapagok village, Tonj East, in conflict between member of Akok and Luac-Koth communities. Snippet
2014/04/02 A forum of political parties and civil society organizations is held in Rumbek, facilitated by UNMISS. Snippet 1757
2014/04 Only 25 out of 105 pharmacies in Rumbek Central County are found to meet qualifying standards, when checked by the state health ministry. Snippet 1756
2014/04 Körgulu people in Yei River County block teak company operations for two days, complaining that the local community is not getting fair benefits from the resource harvesting. Some are reportedly beaten up by employees of Gambo and Sons Timber Company. Snippet 1748
2014/04/04 SUDRA, the relief department of the Episcopal Church (ECSSS), is active in trying to assist displaced people [mainly Dinka from Jonglei] in Nimule area. Local people originally resisted their settlement, but local government has recently allocated land in Miljok to settle 35,000 persons. Snippet
2014/03 People sheltering in the UN camp in Bor (and other places) lack access to secondary health care because it is unsafe for them to go to nearby government hospitals, and aid agencies lack the funding to provide this kind of care. Snippet
2014/03/30 Adak Costa Mapuor, the Lakes State advisor on gender and human rights, is beaten by soldiers looking for weapons in her home when she questions the disarming of her bodyguard. Snippet 1736
2014/03/15 to 2014/04/02 The Commissioner of Mayom County (Unity State) says he has organized the return of 53 cattle stolen by Nuer (South Sudanese) people to Misseriya (Sudanese) of South Kordofan. Snippet
2014/03/31 16 are killed (including 14 women) and 130 cattle are taken in a raid in Twic County (Warrap State) by men thought to be from Unity State. Snippet
2014/03/31 8 people are reported killed and 14 wounded in an inter-communal attack in Rumbek County (Lakes State). Members of Nyan, Amotnhiim and Panguerkur clans are reported to have attacked members of Dhiei clan during a traditional ceremony. Snippet
2014/03/31 The first official gold-mining exploration is being started in the three counties of Greater Kapoeta, by New Kush Exploration and Mining Limited together with the EES government. Snippet 1720
2014/03/28 A peace agreement is initialled by negotiators of GRSS and SSDM-Cobra (David Yauyau militia). The agreement is to create a Greater Pibor Administrative Area, similar to a new state. It also involves a special development fund, increased representation of Murle people in the National Legislative Assembly, and positions for Murle in the national government. The agreement was facilitated by a South Sudanese Church Leaders Mediation Initiative (CLMI). Snippet 1715
2014/03 The Secretary-General of the National Islamic Council appoints a new caretaker Secretary-General for the Islamic Council in WBGS. This is intended to resolve a long-running dispute between the Council's executive and legislative bodies in that state. Snippet
2014/03 WBGS Chamber of Commerce says vehicles moving from Juba to Wau must pay SSP 4,000 at road checkpoints. The police spokesperson says such 'taxation' is illegal. Snippet
2014/03/28 The WBGS Education Ministry announces changes to the school system in 2015: secondary schooling will be four years rather than three, and Arabic will no longer be used as a medium of instruction. Snippet
2014/03 Traders in Torit complain at irregular and excessive taxation. The EES government is said to have plans to unify tax collection. Snippet 1709
2014/03/28 Jonglei State Governor John Kong replaces the Commissioner of Pochalla County, a week after the defection of an SPLA unit there. He also dismisses commissioners of counties which are now under rebel control: Akobo, Nyirol, Uror, and Ayod. Snippet
2014/03 The CES Ministry of Education has ruled that school students are examined on the South Sudan syllabus. This is a problem for students in three of the state's counties - including Yei River County - where the students have been using the Uganda syllabus. Snippet
2014/03 Representatives of the Maban community near Yousif Batil refugee camp (Maban County, Upper Nile) ask the government - through its Committee on Refugee Affairs - to lead a process to stabilize and resolve their conflict with the refugees. UNHCR is trying to help this process. Snippet
2014/03/24 More than 60 cows are raided from Rumbek's central market: the first time a raid has happened there since 2005. Snippet
2014/03/22 to 2014/03/26 Sudan Tribune (ST) reports a press statement from one Wani Tombe Lako, claiming to represent an umbrella organization of political parties, NGOs and others called GRECOR (Greater Equatoria Council of Rights). ST says that Wani is a resident of Khartoum but GRECOR has an office in Juba. The statement says GRECOR is joining Riek Machar's negotiating team, as his rebellion promotes governance reforms needed by Equatorians. ST reports that some Equatorians agree with this, but others (including WES Governor Bakosoro) do not. Snippet
2014/03 In Yei, animals (including many imported from Uganda) are often slaughtered by butchers on the ground, rather than hygienic conditions. There is currently no meat inspection regime. Snippet 1690
2014/03 Three years after eruption of fighting in Pibor area (Jonglei state), most schools remain closed. Currently the problem is not so much direct insecurity as indirect effects: limited availability of teachers, and difficulty getting ready to use the new South Sudan curriculum. Pibor County Commissioner hopes schools will open in April with the help of UNICEF. Snippet
2014/03/21 A peace process is organized in Rumbek North county to reconcile youth from Gaak and Manuer sub-clans. Local MPs, chiefs and students take part. Snippet
2014/03 There are still problems in changing from the school syllabus of Sudan to that of South Sudan, particularly at secondary level. Reasons include lack of key books in schools, poor quality of some South Sudan syllabus books, and a need for more training of teachers in the new syllabus. These problems have recently been discussed in WES. Snippet
2014/03 The rebellion crisis has diverted government money away from agriculture, according to the agriculture minister in WES. Snippet
2014/03/23 to 2014/03/24 The Minister of Physical Infrastructure in NBGS is summoned to the state assembly to explain many apparent irregularities in the allocation of land around Aweil. But he fails to show up. Snippet 1677
2014/03 Fifteen more people are killed in further feuding between sub-sections of Kook Pacuar (Agar Dinka) in Rumbek East County. The state government is blamed by some for failing to investigate and prosecute the previous crimes, or send security forces to keep the peace. Snippet
2014/03/20 The Anti-Corruption Commission of EES meets with members of the state's Youth Union, saying that limited resources mean it needs them (and other citizens) to help in the fight against corruption. But the youth chairperson complains at lack of transparency in the work of the Commission, and failure to name even one suspect so far. Snippet 1675

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Reference Mini-review
Marjoke Oosterom, 2014/05/30. Bibliography item: Marjoke Oosterom (2014/05/30) "‘It May Approach as Quickly as a Bushfire’: Gendered Violence and Insecurity in South Sudan". (Report). IDS (Institute of Development Studies), UK. [Report] IDS (Institute of Development Studies), UK. Accessed online.

Based on research among mainly Latuko people in Imuruk Payam, Torit County, this 66-page academic-style report looks at how women and men see the threat of violence and respond differently to it. People in the study area had an acute sense of the possibility of violence coming to their area, because of their general understanding of the character of the state in South Sudan. Among many responses and strategies mentioned, men prepare to fight defensively, women and girls are cautious about where they go.

Garang Atem Ayiik, 2014/05/20. Bibliography item: Garang Atem Ayiik (2014/05/20) "South Sudan Pound Appreciation, Risks and Policy Options". (Article). PaanLuel Wël. [Article] PaanLuel Wël. Accessed online.

This article sets out to understand why the SSP has strengthened against the USD in the black market since December 2013, and why bank are refusing or rationing withdrawals of USD from USD bank accounts. The author surmises that USD are leaking from the Central Bank into the black market without passing through the official market, and that too many SSP are being held in the banks. He recommends that the asset position of the Central Bank should be monitored, and that more SSP released into the economy (by prompt payment of salaries) to prevent a catastrophic reduction in economic activity.

Robert Young Pelton, 2014/05/12. Bibliography item: Robert Young Pelton (2014/05/12) "Saving South Sudan". (Article). Vice. [Article] Vice. Accessed online.

50,000-word article. Based on a daring journey to visit rebel commander Riek Machar and some of his military operations in the field, this long article is a compelling read. Riddled with statements which are simplistic, inaccurate or plain untrue (especially in matters of historical background), it is nevertheless an important contribution to knowledge of South Sudan, because of an insightful portrayal of Riek Machar and  an authentic depiction of horrors and farce around of one of captures of Malakal by the SPLM/A-IO and White Army.

Juma Mabor Marial, 2014/05/11. Bibliography item: Juma Mabor Marial (2014/05/11) "The Genesis and Phenomenon of Intra-Clans’ Conflict and Revenge Attacks in Lakes State". (Article). South Sudan News Agency. [Article] South Sudan News Agency. Accessed online., Accessed online., Accessed online.

In this three-part article, totalling over six thousand words, Juma Mabor Marial suggests there is an innate tendency for clan feuding among the Galweng (cattle-herding youth), and blames leaders and educated elites for failing to curb it. He says it was limited more effectively during the war before 2005, due to the strength of relatively uninhibited military rule. But since then, although governors have had military backgrounds, the peacetime conditions did not allow them to impose force so easily, and they were not educated enough to find civil ways of governing.

Radio Tamazuj, 2014/05/01. Bibliography item: Radio Tamazuj (2014/05/01) "Understanding the Bentiu massacres in South Sudan". (Article). Radio Tamazuj. [Article] Radio Tamazuj. Accessed online.

Careful account of what is publicly known about the Bentiu massacres of 15-16 April, ahead of further investigations and reports from UNMISS and others.

HSBA, 2014/03/18. The Conflict in Upper Nile State [Article] Human Security Baseline Assessment for Sudan and South Sudan, Small Arms Survey. Accessed online.

2,000-word narrative on the rebellion-related fighting in Upper Nile State since December 2013.

HSBA, 2014/03/18. The Conflict in Unity State [Article] Human Security Baseline Assessment for Sudan and South Sudan, Small Arms Survey. Accessed online.

1,400-word article narrating the fighting in Unity State associated with the rebellion since December 2013.

Elena Balatti, 2014/03/07. Malakal: An Eye-Witness Diary [Article] Gurtong. Accessed online.

Valuable testimony by a nun, which helps one visualise more clearly what happened in Malakal during in early 2014.

Gabriel Garang Atem Ayiik, 2014/03/06. Examining the Exchange Rate Policy in RSS: Who was Right between Parliament and the Bank of South Sudan [Article] PaanLuel Wël. Accessed online.

Sophisticated but accessible analysis of exchange rate policy.

Rachel Gordon, 2014/03. In the eye of the storm: An analysis of internal conflict in South Sudan’s Jonglei State [Report] Feinstein International Center, Tufts University. Accessed online.

Explores the complexity of conflict and underdevelopment in Jonglei, warning against simplistic analyses or proffered solutions. Notes that "elites have maintained or fallen back on the strategies they employed throughout the decades of war for solidifying their own social and financial positions in the face of constant threat" and concludes that "the causes of conflict must be disaggregated and chipped away without unrealistic hopes for quick solutions" but also that "the perpetrators and enablers of violence...must be consistently held accountable through both words and actions".

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